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Full text of "The History Of Western Education"

282        HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION

the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge in 1698, " to
further and promote that good design of erecting Catechetical
schools in each parish in and about London," and to gather the
children into the membership of the Church.   In forty years the
Society had opened 2,000 schools throughout England and Wales,
and had some 40,000 scholars on its rolls:  the dissenters had
at most only about a tenth of this number of schools.   Later in
the century the work of the charity schools was supplemented by
that of the Sunday schools which spread over the country under
the auspices of " The Society for the Support and Encouragement
of Sunday Schools in the Different Counties of England/' formed
by Robert Raikes of Gloucester in 1785.   Contemporary with
these movements in France and England was a movement in
Protestant Germany, similar in its origins but very different in
its later developments.     It began with the work of August
Hermann Francke (1663-1727), the educational leader of Pietism.
Francke had come under the influence of Reyher when attending
the gymnasium at Gotha, and this evidently had given him an
interest in educational work.    Appointed professor of Oriental
languages in the new university of Halle, he started a small school
for the poor (1695), to which he was enabled by public contri-
butions to add later a whole cluster of educational institutions,
including an ordinary elementary school, an orphan asylum, a
boarding school (P&dagogium), and a seminary for the training of
teachers.   Frederick William I, the King of Prussia, who was
greatly interested in Francke's work, accepted his views about the
importance of the education of the common people, and made
attendance at the elementary schools of Prussia compulsory ia
1716-17.   His son, Frederick the Great, though less concerned
than his father about the religious education of his citizens, was at
one with him on the need for universal education.    Even in the
midst of the wars with which he ushered in his reign, he found
time to arrange for the support of the village schools under the
charge of the clergy; and in 1763 (some twenty years later) he
issued General School Regulations, making attendance at school
compulsory for all children from five to fourteen under penalty of
a fine, throwing the financial responsibility on landowners and
tenants, providing for teachers, and entrusting the clergy with the
duty of constant supervision and inspection.   In after time, as we
shall see, these school regulations had far-reaching consequences,